Annular Nail – Pallet nail with circular ring threads (called annular threads), rolled onto the shank to ensure secure fastening; also known as ring nail or ring shank nail.
Bin – (Also known as a box or container bin pallet) – Four-sided superstructure for mounting on a pallet base.
Block Pallets – Type of pallet with blocks (rectangular, square or cylindrical deck spacer,)
between the pallet decks making it more durable. Block pallets utilize both parallel and perpendicular stringers to better facilitate efficient handling. Block pallets are stronger than stringer pallets and are recommended for heavier loads.
Buy/Sell Programs – Extended-use pallets are bought back from retailers, repaired and resold.
Chamfered Deck Board – pallet with two beveled edges to increase access for pallet jack wheels.
Closed “Loop” or Closed Distribution System – A shipping system that’s restricted to moving goods only between specified facilities.
Collar – Collapsible wooden container or bin used to change a pallet into a box.
Composite Pallets – Made from recycled plastic, ISPM compliant, durable and resistant to contamination.
Core Pallets –Pallet industry term for a used 48 X 40 wooden pallet, the size most commonly used in North America; most often purchased used.
Cost per Trip – Average cost of pallet or container use for a single one-way movement of the unit load.
Custom pallets – Designed for a customers’ specific needs often employing PDS software for the design.
Debarked Pallets (DB) – Debarked pallets are made from “debarked” wood, which has had the bark removed with a cutting tool, and the wood itself is left untreated. The IPPC originally required pallets to be identified with a DB stamp, but since most modern wood treatment requires debarking, the IPPC no longer requires this stamp. Pallets marked with the letters DB only are chemical-free and safe to use.
Deckboard – The boards in a pallet deck that are oriented perpendicular to the stringer or stringerboard.
Deflection – The amount of misshapement or bend in a pallet or pallet component under a load.
Double-Wing Pallet – A pallet with top and bottom deck boards that extend past the edges of the stringers or stringer boards .
Double–Face Pallet – A pallet comprised of an equal amount of top and bottom deck boards. Both sides of the pallet can be used.
Dwell Time Fee – Fee charged for the amount of time a customer has the pallet in their possession.
Economic Life – Output from the PDS program quantifying the number of trips a pallet is projected to make over its lifetime (assuming it is kept properly repaired) to maximize return on investment.
Exchange Pallet – (Commonly known as a pool pallet) A pallet designated for use between a specific group of shippers and receivers; pallet ownership is taken over with the ownership of the unit load.
Expendable Pallets – A pallet intended to be handled for a limited series of moves during a single unit load movement from shipper to receiver, after which it is discarded.
Fastener – A mechanical device used to join pallet components; fasteners could be nails, staples, bolts or screws.
Fastener Shear Index – Relative measure of the estimated shear resistance of a particular fastener relative to shear resistance of a high quality “base” nail.
Flush Pallet – A pallet in which the deckboards (boards perpendicular to the stringers or stringboards) are flush with the stringers, stringerboards or blocks along the sides of the pallet.
Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) – regulation on sanitation and trace-ability in the food supply chain. Requires that transportation equipment be adequately cleanable for intended use to prevent food from becoming contaminated. The law’s record-keeping requirements are also expected to encourage pallet users to ask suppliers to provide more information about their manufacturing and delivery processes.
Fork Entry – The entry point between decks, beneath the top deck or beneath the stringer notch, to allow forks access.
Four-Way Block Pallet – A pallet in which openings at both ends and along the sides are sufficient to allow access for hand-pallet jacks; also known as a full four-way entry pallet.
Free Span – The distance between supports in a warehouse rack.
Half pallets – made of wood with metal brackets, offering merchandising opportunities to retailers and their product manufacturer suppliers. The half pallet makes sense in any heavily trafficked area.
Handling – Refers to pallet movement including a single pick-up, movement and set-down of a pallet, empty or loaded.
Hardwood – Any wood from broad-leaved species of trees.
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) – guidelines regulating wooden pallet usage in food transport and storage to prevent contamination.
Heat Treatment – The wood in pallets that have been heat treated have been heated to a minimum core temperature of 133°F for softwoods and 140°C for hardwoods for a minimum of 30 minutes in a kiln. HT pallets are not harmful to your health.
Some woods like cherry and oak release sap within the wood at these temperatures, coating the wood with a dark stain. Although the dark stain may make pallets appear old and worn, the pallets may be quite new. Heat treatment does not compromise the strength or durability of the wood or pallets.
ISPM 15 – International Standards of Phytosanitary Measures Publication No. 15 – Guidelines for regulating wood packaging material in international trade. The International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) developed the ISPM 15 standard to prevent transporting and spreading disease and insects in international trade. The standard applies to wood packaging, such as pallets. The wood is heat treated or fumigated with heat, methyl bromide, debarked, or kiln dried. Heat treated pallets are stamped with a mark of compliance, sometimes referred to as the “wheat stamp”. Note that the stamp identifies the method used to treat the wood: